- The problem is the City of San Diego Fire-Rescue Department, like many other fire service agencies, has taken on the responsibility of providing Emergency Medical Services (EMS) for its citizens. Specifically, San Diego Fire-Rescue (SDFD) provides this service through a unique Public-Private partnership with Rural-Metro Corporation, consisting of an Advanced Life Support (ALS) Emergency Medical Technician-Paramedic (EMT-P) 1st responder on each of its 46 Engine Companies and ALS EMT-P transport units. Data has shown that service delivery to its constituents has greatly improved resulting in "customer satisfaction" ratings reaching the 99th percentile. The purpose of this applied research project was to analyze San Diego's Fire-based EMS system and to identify any affects it may have on SDFD's ability to recruit and hire a diverse workforce at the entry-level. Additionally, the author sought to identify if this issue was commonplace to other comparable sized agencies. In conducting this research the author utilized descriptive research methodologies to answering the following questions: 1. To what degree, is the fire service providing EMS to its constituents? 2. What, if any, are the EMS related services provided by other comparable-sized departments? 3. Specifically, for agencies that provide ALS 1st Responders, how are their ALS Paramedic personnel obtained? 4. What, if any impact, has fire-based EMS had on retention of ALS Paramedics on comparable-sized departments and the City of San Diego Fire-Rescue Department? 5. What, if any impact, had fire-based EMS had on recruitment efforts for comparable-sized departments and the City of San Diego Fire-Rescue Department? 6. What recruitment strategies are being utilized by comparable-sized departments, which could be adopted by the City of San Diego's Fire-Rescue Department? The procedures used in this applied research project included literary reviews to determine the breadth of Fire-based EMS within the fire service; identification of issues affecting service delivery, specifically, the ability to recruit and retain trained paramedics; and identification of strategies and programs currently being utilized to effectively address diversification of the workforce in order to mirror the communities served. Additionally, the researcher conducted a written survey, externally, to determine the same information from comparable-sized departments to assist in determining basis of results. Recommendations made were to 1) abolish SDFD's current "Firefighter-Paramedic" based delivery model and adopt a model utilizing Paramedics of any rank, 2) SDFD should train it's existing members, on a voluntary basis, to meet their paramedic needs, 3) SDFD should also explore the possibility of creating a Paramedic Intern Program with the local Community College Districts and 4) establish an Outreach Program to expose members of the community to the career opportunities available as an Paramedic and a Firefighter through a collective partnership with local school districts, organized labor, informal employee organizations, the business community and established labor preparedness programs.